The existing Home Routed Roaming (HRR) mechanism introduces long interruption times (+1 min)

= Unfeasible for seamless service continuity, therefore we need roaming optimization techniques

HRR induces high latency because use data are routed to the home UPF when the UE is in a visited network.

= This is why we need Local Break-Out (LBO) roaming

To guarantee service continuity across the border, we need cross-border interfaces between

  • Orchestrators of different MNOs
  • MECs of different MNOs

With irregular orography and dense vegetation in cross-border area

= therefore we need complementary radio technologies to cover 5G NR holes (70 GHz and satellite in remote/isolated areas, C-V2X)